Page 6 IT/77, April 9 - April 24, 1970 murder of the black African population of the Southern Sudan by the Northern Sudanese Arabs. This state of terrorism is basically due to the joining to- gether of two peoples who are racially, culturally and in every other way different into the unitary state of the Sudan. This has resulted in the extreme persecution of the minority black African tribes of the Southern Sudan by the Arabic Northern Sudanese. Until Independence in late 1955 Britain and Egypt had jointly ruled the Northern Sudan and the Southern Sudan, who now prefer to be called the NILESTA TES, in what came to be known as the Egypto-British Co- Dominion. Britain had always treated the two countries as entirely independent entities, and assumed that at Independence emergent black east-African nations. However, because of constant pressure from Egypt, who threatened to deny Britain the use of the Suez Canal, and transparently false promises by the Northern Sudanese to respect the independence of the Southern Sudan, Britain gave independence to the two countries as the unitary state of the SUDAN. In 1958 Military Rule was imposed by the Arabs and the slaughter of black Africans had begun. . "¦ The appalling incompetence of the British Colonial Serv- ice in failing to understand the true motives of the Arabs, and its moral corruption in succumbing to economic pressure from Egypt has been largely responsible for the death of over one million black Africans in the Sudan. It is one of the sickest ironies of history that only a year The following is a discussion between Graham Scovell, who taped the story for IT, and 'A Ian' who cannot be further identified for fear of possible recriminations. Alan worked for three years as a teacher m a neighbour- ing country during that time he worked with the contin- uous stream of refugees from the Nile States. Although he was living at subsistence level he attempted with some success to organise a structure that would enable the refugees to live in a self-sufficient community. Eventually he accepted an invitation from one of the Nile States' Freedom Fighters to go with him into South Sudan. Tlie danger to himself was immense; had he been caugh t he would either have been executed or taken to Khartoum to be used for political propaganda purposes - and then i executed- ' Mass Murder and Guerrilla Warfare in the Southern Sudan ISIIiiiilll I THIS WOMAN'S HUSBAND WAS KILLED, AND HER VILLAGE DESTROYED BY THE ARAB ARMY FROM THE NORTH SUDAN THE ANYA-NYA GRAHAM: Would you explain exactly what happened when you accepted this invitation to go into the Nile States. ALAN: My friends and I went into the Upper Nile Province of the Nile States so that 1 could see for myself what was going early days they were attacking Arab out- posts with spears and bows & arrows — but for the last seven years or so the army has been very well organised as the Anya- Nya. The discipline is good, and the arms situation is quite good, with anti-tank & anti-personnel carrier weapons & mortars. The ANAF have moved on to open con- frontation with the Arabs. For example, in 1958 the Arab authorities sent a fairly large force down the Nile from Malakal by steamer - there was a direct battle on. We met up with a large group of ANY A- which ended in a complete victory for NYA [the partisan rebels.who are fighting for the independence of the Southern Sudan]. The ANYA-NYA NATIONAL ARMED FORC- ES, ANAF for short, are made up almost exclusively of Black African tribesmen. This particular group is made up mainly of DINKA tribesmen, and we were mov- ing in the territory of the NUER tribe. The morale of the soldiers and the people that I met in the countryside was very high despite the fact that this was an area of fairly intense Arab activity. GRAHAM: What type of warfare are the ANAF engaged in - is it guerrilla warfare or direct confrontation? ALAN: This is a war of national liberation and as such the ANAF are only interested in making their territory secure. It certain- ly started out as guerrilla warfare — in the the ANAF. About 80% of the Arab force were killed, but not without considerable loss on our side. A large number of wom- en & children were killed at the town of Fangak as a direct retaliation for this battle by the returning Arabs. GRAHAM: It looks as if the type of war- fare is very different from the usual type of skirmishes which frequently happen in the borderlands joining people of different racial or political groups. ALAN: Why yes of course! The whole of the Southern Sudan is involved, not just a region along the border. There has always been an element of fanatical Moslems in the Northern Sudan, as the British found out during the Mahdi revolution. It is this element which keeps pressure on the Khar- toum government to enforce a nominal acceptance of the Islamic faith on the black Africans. Generally the Arabs keep to the towns and try whenever possible to evade fighting the Anya-nya, which has emerged as a very effective fighting force. The Arab army is not particularly efficient and so they can only make reprisals against the civilian population. There is no doubt that there has been murder on a massive scale in reprisal for ANAF activities. The Arab method is to surround a village, kill some of the men & boys, rape the women <% perhaps abduct the women & children. They would then burn the village to the ground. VITAL STATISTICS GRAHAM: Have you seen such incidents yourself or is your information hearsay? ALAN: No, it's not hearsay at all. I have seen this sort of incident many times. I went through areas which were existing normally, and a few weeks later when I came back through that area the village had been burnt down. This photograph shows a native woman standing in the rubble of her home. She returned with us from the bush, where we had met her. She has just found her husband dead in the rubble. Fortunately the custom of this particular tribe is that she will marry the eldest eligible son of her husband's family so that her material welfare and that of her children, will be taken care of. The other photograph was taken the next day when some of the menfolk had return- ed to the village after escaping into the bush at the time of the raid. I have another photograph which was taken three months later which shows the village completely rebuilt as if nothing had ever happened. In fact some of these villages are destroyed and rebuilt so many times that the Arabs have finally given up and don't bother the villagers again. The Nilean is not involved with propaganda and does not enlarge on these atrocities. They keep good records of the numbers killed or abducted. For example, 187 civilians were killed and 570 kidnapped by the Arab troops at Kajo-Kaji Yei District between February & September in 1968. In February 1968 2 companies of Arab troops from their Mundri Base went to a Mom village and abducted 22 men, women & children, taking them back to their base. On the way, one man, a tailor, and his wife escaped and told of the rape of the young girls, and the torture & general brutality of the Arabs against the male captives.